- No study comprehensively evaluated the benefits and costs of distributed solar energy, although many acknowledge additional sources of benefit and cost, and many agree on the broad categories of benefit and cost.
- There is significantly less agreement on an overall approach to estimating grid support services and currently unmonetized values including financial and security risk, environment, and social value.
- The report summarizes 11 categories of average values for distributed solar energy, including energy, avoided grid losses, generation capacities, transmission and distribution capacities, grid support, fuel hedging, market elasticity, security, pollutants, carbon, and customer benefits.
- There is a significant range of estimated value across studies (from 1 c/kWh to 11 c/kWh) driven primarily by differences in local context, input assumptions, and methodological approaches.
- Costs of increased distributed photovoltaic are not adequately assessed often not presented individually in studies, and range from 0 c/kWh to 35 c/kWh.